Opposites Attract: Assortative Mating and Immigrant–Native Intermarriage in Modern Sweden


This paper studies just how immigrant–native intermarriages in Sweden are connected with specific faculties of indigenous people and habits of assortative mating. Habits of educational- and age-assortative mating which are comparable to the ones that are in native–native marriages may reflect openness to immigrant groups, whereas assortative mating habits that suggest status factors claim that nation of delivery continues to act as a boundary within the indigenous wedding market. The research utilizes Swedish register information which cover the complete Swedish populace when it comes to amount of 1991–2009. The outcomes from binomial and multinomial logistic regressions show that low status of natives with regards to financial and demographic faculties is related to intermarriage and that intermarriages are described as academic and age heterogamy more than are native–native marriages. The findings suggest that immigrant females along with immigrant guys are more marriage that is attractive if they're quite a bit more youthful than their native partners. This is certainly specially real for intermarriages with immigrants from specific areas of origin, such as for instance spouses from Asia and Africa and husbands from Asia, Africa, in addition to center East. Gender variations in the intermarriage habits of indigenous both women and men are interestingly little.


A distinct function of several wedding areas is homogamy in spousal option. Lovers are usually similar pertaining to status that is socioeconomicKalmijn 1991), age (van Poppel et al. 2001), training, battle, and faith https://hookupdate.net/divorced-dating/ (Blackwell and Lichter 2004). While there was clearly similarity that is increasing particular traits such as for instance education and age over a few years (Schwartz and Mare 2005; Van de Putte et al. 2009), there is a decrease in homogamy when it comes to nation of delivery throughout the increase of intermarriages between natives and immigrants in European countries. Footnote 1 Scholars usually learn immigrant–native intermarriage when you look at the context of immigrant integration and regularly consider intermarriage while the step that is final the assimilation procedure (Gordon 1964). a rather neglected part of this is that “it takes two to tango”: it needs just as much willingness from the section of natives to intermarry because it does regarding the element of immigrants. This research addresses an interest which has hitherto been understudied for the reason that it analyses the (inter-)marriage behavior of indigenous Swedes. Footnote 2 centering on the indigenous bulk expands the intermarriage literary works and contributes to a much better knowledge of societal openness towards minorities within the marriage market that is majority’s. The characteristics of both the native partner and the immigrant partner, this paper is an important contribution to the intermarriage literature by taking into account. Intermarriage is normally considered to signal the truth that various groups that are social each other as equals (cf. Kalmijn 1991), but marriage also can replicate social hierarchies by excluding particular teams through the pool of possible lovers and reproducing social structures within these. Where intermarriages show systematic habits of hypergamy and hypogamy, this is certainly, indigenous lovers marry up or down in traits such as for instance age and training, it may be determined that the lovers usually do not consider one another as social equals (Merton 1941). Intermarriage patterns consequently have actually the possible to show implicit hierarchies of immigrants into the wedding market. Footnote 3

The specific concern that this paper tries to response is whether intermarriages are from the status of native Swedes aswell as that of immigrants into the marriage market that is swedish. By analysing the average person characteristics of natives being connected with intermarriage plus the educational- and age-assortative mating patterns of intermarried partners as opposed to the simple regularity of these unions, this research plays a part in a formerly understudied area within the intermarriage literary works. It makes use of register that is high-quality within the whole populace of residents in Sweden and includes all marriages and non-marital unions with typical kiddies that have been created in the time scale 1991–2009.

Background and past Research on Immigrant–Native Intermarriages in European countries and Sweden

Intermarriage between immigrants and natives has grown in many countries that are european previous years and it is closely associated with the percentage of immigrants in the united states (Lanzieri 2012). This increase that is general intermarriage in European countries is largely associated with an amazing boost in intermarriage with partners from nations away from EU (de Valk and Medrano 2014). Intermarriage prices in Sweden have risen constantly since the 1970s, therefore the enhance is significantly steeper for males compared to women. Figure 1 shows the proportions of immigrant–native intermarriages (defined here as marriages from A swede that is native footnote and their foreign-born partner) and native–native marriages (thought as marriages between two indigenous partners) of all of the newly contracted marriages created by indigenous Swedes from 1969 to 2009. At the time of 1991 the register extracts utilized in this paper have an identifier for non-marital cohabitations with typical kids, that makes it possible to report the stocks of native–native cohabitation and immigrant–native cohabitation.

Stocks of native–native unions and immigrant–native unions of all of the unions of indigenous men that are swedish feamales in Sweden 1969–2009

The shares of immigrant–native marriage and cohabitation are close in size and have changed only marginally since the 1990s; for native men, there is a wider gap with immigrant–native cohabitation displaying lower rates with little increase over time and immigrant–native marriages displaying higher rates with a more pronounced increase over time for native women.

In previous years, intermarriage between indigenous Swedes and immigrants had been dominated by intermarriage along with other citizens that are nordic especially Finns (Cretser 1999). Much more the past few years, the rise in intermarriages could be mostly accounted for by the increased quantity of marriages with partners from outside Europe, and Thailand has replaced Finland as the utmost frequent nation of origin for intermarried immigrant ladies (although Finland continues to be the most typical country of beginning for intermarried immigrant guys; Haandrikman 2014).